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Sport, Globalization, Economy, Health, Public Policy and Power- Juniper Publishers

Juniper Publishers- Journal of Physical Fitness, Medicine & Treatment in Sports

First Part

Sports in Globalization

Atypic transnational entertainment and entertainment enterprise (Edtee), governing activity or “Punta” of the world economy and scenario of structural inequality in the distribution of medals-champions and the economic benefits that it produces.

Origin and Physiomics of the Edtee

Established in 1968-1981 and consolidated between 1982-2017, the globalization of sport is its conversion into EDTEE, which works with the logic and dynamics of any transnational and its objective is to produce a profitable, daily and massive show:
“In 2006, it moved US $213 billion in the US and generated 2 and 7 times more profits than the automotive and film industries, respectively ... Globally, in 2014: Generated 1% of GDP ... Its value was 1.5 billion US $, ... equivalent to US exports in one year ... In June 2015, in Europe it generated 1.76% of gross value added and 2.12% of employment and it was estimated that the multiplier effect was 1.22% for the set of the economy ... Worldwide in 2015, accounting for its infrastructure, goods, licenses and events has a value of 643-689,000 million US $, 1% of world GDP ... “ [1].
Its atipicity as a transnational is given by:
a) Its organization-management.
b) Nature of the work force.
c) It is present all over the world.
d) Monopolize the total production of the show.
e) It lacks a centralized power.

Let’s See Its Physiognomy

a. Units of Organization and Management of the Sports Show: World Sports Organization (WSO) or sports government, headed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and FIFA, whose main events are:
b. Olympic Games (0G): Organized-managed by the IOC, which made its commercialization with the “Sponsorship Programs, initiated in the 1988 OG” (Samaranch 2002: 85)? The main sponsors are the World Olympic Partners, who are associated by 3-4 OG, use their image worldwide and are franchises in the Villa.
Olympic the other sponsors have the same rights, but can only operate in the host country and the contract lasts four years. In 2016 they were:
“World Olympic Partners: Cocacola; Atos Origin; General Electric; McDonalds; Omega; Panasonic; Samsung; Visa, Procter Gamble; Dow; Bridgestone. Official Partners: Bradesco; Bradesco Seguros; Correios; N = T; Clear; Embratel; Nissan Official Contributors: Aliansce Shopping Centers; Apex; CISCO; Estàcio; EY; Balloon;. Sadia; Qualy; SKQL; Latam Airlines and Travel: 361º. Suppliers I: Airbnb; AC; CEG; Dica do chef; Balloon; EF Education; Eventim; GREE; ISDS; Karcher; Komeco; Locate Manpowergroup; Microsoft; Mondo; Nielsen; NIKE; OFF !; RGS; Sapore; SEG Gymnastics; Symantec; Technogym; 3 Corações; Riogaleão. Suppliers II: Bauerfeind; Casa da Moeda; EMC; Hospital dos Olhos; Osterscope”.
Simultaneously, the IOC commercialized the transmission rights, in millions of US $:
“In August 1995 the ... American NBC ... committed to pay 1,250 for the rights in the USA of the OG 2000 ... and the OG Invierno 2002 .... Then he proposed: 2,300 for OG 2004-2008 and OG Winter 2006 ... (Jennings, 1996: 279). “Jacques Rogge, President of the IOC between 2001-2013, in ... the financial report before the 2012 General Assembly, pointed out that the IOC already secured 3,600 in TV rights for the Winter W in 2014 and the 2016 OG; He indicated that the goal is to exceed 4,000, more than the 3,900 that they raised with the Winter 2010 and the 2012 OG. For the winter 2018 and the OG 2020, the IOC secured 2,600 ... The main TV partner is NBC, which bought the rights for transmission in the US of 4 Olympics until 2020 by ... 4.380” [2].
World Cup: Organized-managed by FIFA, whose links with companies evolved to the Official Licensing Program in the World Cups (1994). Established the Sponsorship Program 2007- 2014 and in the 2014 World Cup the sponsors were:”Partners: Coca-Cola; Adidas; Sony; Visa; Hyundai and Kia; Fly Emirates... Exclusive sponsors: Budweiser, Castrol, Continental, Johnson & Johnson, McDonald’s, Moy park, Oi and Yingli Solar... National promoters: ApexBrasil, Garoto, Liberty Seguros, Banco Itaú and Wiseup”.
The importance of broadcasting rights was recognized by FIFA in 2004:
“Revenues have not stopped growing. Correspond at the same time the rights of television broadcast... “(Eisenberg, Lanfranchi, Mason and Wahl, 2004: 248). “Until October 2011 the total amount agreed for the period 2015-2022 exceeded US $ 1,850 million... FIFA granted sales representation to Infront Sports & Media in Asia ... Australia: Extension of the contract with SBS. Canada: Rights granted to Bell Media (CTV / TSN / RDS). Caribbean: Extension of the contract with IMC (SportsMax)”.
FIFA’s revenues are specified in its 2011-2014 Financial Report, in millions of US $:
“With income of 5,718 and expenses of 5,380, a positive result of 338 was registered, income increased in relation to 2007-2010 due to the increase in sales of commercialization and transmission rights and the benefits of ticket sales rights that in Previous cycles had been assigned to the Local Organizing Committee, reserves were increased..., reached the 1,523 to the 31-12-2014... The total income is broken down as follows: Events 5,137: 4,308 of the 2014 World Cup (TV Rights: 2,428; Marketing rights: 1,580; Commercialization of rights for corporate hospitality preferential services: 185; Licensing: 115) and 829 for other events... Operating income 271... Financial income 310....

Transnational Professional Clubs endorsed by the ODM

The main event that they organize-manage are the European Football Championships, endorsed by the respective National and European Federations:
“In 2001, Manchester United of England was the most expensive club (1,400 million US $) and was the first to quote on the Stock Exchange. In Spain at the end of the 20th century, football contributed 1% of GDP and, in 1999, in Italy it was the twelfth economic sector “(Altuve [2]: 113 / 115-116). Starting the 21st century, Real Madrid is a Club model: “sponsored in 2008-2009 by Adidas, Audi, Bwin, Mahou Beers, Coca-Cola, Community of Madrid-madrid.org, Rexona For Men, San Miguel, Sanitas, Solán de Cabras and Solaria, is applying a management model that combines the social (UNICEF ambassador) and marketing with the aim of enhancing the exploitation of its brand, transforming its fans into customers”.
The Professional League of Spain promotes globalizing marketing initiatives:
“He installed his first office in Beijing... in 2014, he announced that at the end of 2015 he would open the one in Johannesburg... and New York and Shanghai... With Pepsi Egypt, in October- November 2015; in the summer of 2015... With an organization sponsored by Nike, in the USA...”.
It is appropriate to highlight -in millions US $ -which:
a) 5,525.52 is the income of the 20 Soccer Clubs with the highest income in 2008-2009: Germany, France, Italy, England and Spain.
b) 12,602.2 is the value of the 10 Most Expensive Clubs in 2010: 7 of the USA (6 American football or NFL and 1 baseball), 2 of England and 1 Spain (soccer).
c) 2.072 is the value of the 10 Most Valuable Club Brands in 2010: 51.09% of the value are from 5 football clubs in Europe (2 from England, 2 from Spain and 1 Germany) and the remaining 48.91% to USA (3 of baseball and 2 of NFL) (Altuve, 2018: 104-106 / 108).

Transnational companies endorsed by the MDG

The main events that they organize-manage are the Vueltas de Ciclismo. The annual Tours of France will be considered:
Organized by Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), a company of the French Group Philippe Amaury Publications, which... in 2010 organized 21 events... Together with ASO guarantee the success of the Tours the employer organization of the participating professional clubs (AIGCP), the Union of International Cycling and French Cycling Federation, who endorse it by the ODM. In 2005, an agreement was reached between ASO and the AIGCP that included the Tours editions from 2005 to 2008 “(Altuve, 2018: 124-125).
In 2009, the budget was approximately US $ 139 million, financed: 10% for rights paid by the cities-stage; Eurovision, France 2, France 3 and France 4 paid 50% for audiovisual rights; 40% of sponsorship and advertising rights. The advertising caravan was an important advertising tool:
“It covers 20 km, goes ahead of the competition with 160 vehicles, 600 caravans, 33 brands represented, 16 million gifts, ... and merits an investment between 278,000-695,000 US $ .... Media coverage included: 186 countries; ... with 118 TV channels; ... 650 media ...; as for the Internet website, it received six million visitors “(Altuve, 2018: 126).

Independent multinational companies of the MDG

The main event that they organize-manage is the annual Formula One (F1), property of Liberty Media, who bought the F1 for 4,400 million US $ on 07-09-16. The management of F1 is exercised through the Formula One Group, whose main sources of income are:
“TV broadcast is the main form ... according to the English newspaper Autosport can reach more than 300 million US $ and were sold in 67 countries for the 2010 season ... By radio: They have increased, in the US since 25-05 -08- the races were available through SIRIUS 125 of SIRIUS Satellite Radio company that for 2008 had more than 130 channels, was the Partner ... by Official Satellite of the NFL, NBA and NHL. The sponsors in 2010 were Allianz, DHL, the bank. UBS, GH Mumm and LG Electronics, Inc, which between 2009-2013 acquired exclusive titles from Global and Technological Partners and ... Official Partner for Consumer Electronics, Mobile Telephony and Data Processing “(Altuve, 2018: 135).
The economic and media success of F1, measured in millions of US dollars, is resounding:
“Between 1979-2004 ... it showed profits valued at 3,600 ...; in 2007 it had 597 million viewers, with 11,183 hours of retransmission in 188 countries, of which 5,169 hours (47%) were live and direct; in 2010, TV rights were sold to 67 countries ... As of 2006, it abandoned cigarette advertising, but this did not affect the business because new sponsors were incorporated, to the point that in 2007 it mobilized around 13.6 thousand million US $ per year”.

Sportsman-Competitor: Main Work Force of the Show

Professional whose job is to prepare and compete. Their types of employment relationship are:
a) It combines the work of representation of your country in the ODM competencies with that performed in one of these scenarios: Professional Clubs whose events endorse the MDG; transnational events endorsed by the MDG; Professional Clubs or transnational events endorsed by the MDG, with the mediation of the State: Cuba case.
b) Work on competitions organized by independent Transnationals of the MDG.
The one hundred best sportsmen-competitors paid in 2015: earned 3,200 million US $, 17% more than in 2014; 62 are American (27 MLB baseball); they come from 10 sports disciplines; and 2 are women. In millions of US $ income (including salaries / prizes and sponsorship), the sport discipline and the country of the top 10 are presented: Floyd May weather (300-Boxing-USA). Manny Pacquiao (160-Boxing-Philippines). Cristiano Ronaldo (79.6-Soccer of Europe- Portugal). Lionel Messi (73,8-Soccer of Europe-Argentina). Roger Federer (67-Tennis Open-Switzerland). LeBron James (64.8-NBA Basketball-USA). Kevin Durant (54.1-NBA Basketball-USA). Phil Mickelson (50,8- Golf Open-USA). Tiger Woods (50.6-Open Golf- USA). Kobe Bryant (49.5-NBA Basketball-USA) [3].

Sponsoring Transnational Companies or “Sponsors”

They buy:
a) The organizers-managers of the show, the right to use the symbols and the logo of the events in the advertising of their products.
b) The media spaces to spread their associated advertising and identified with the symbols and logos of the show.

Transnational Media Companies

They broadcast the show, buy the transmission rights to the organizers-managers and sell the spaces to the sponsors for their publicity. Since the 90s of the twentieth century, they have been acting simultaneously as organizers-managers and disseminators of the show.

Transnational Sporting Goods Companies

They provide the products used by competitors: instruments (balls, balls, snowshoes, garrochas, javelins, bicycles, etc.) and on their bodies (shoes and clothing); and sponsor events and athlete-competitors. At the close of fiscal year 31-05-2015, in millions of US dollars: the 10 leading companies (from the US and Europe) had sales of 99,315, led by Nike (USA) and Adidas (Germany) with 30,601 and 19,113, which obtained net profit 3,273 and 723.2, respectively [4].


It is the destiny of the show. It is the basis of the operation of EDTEE, whose fundamental objective is the conversion of all the inhabitants of the planet into fanatics of sport, that is, spectators who internalize the advertising messages issued during the events and become compulsive consumers of goods and services. Of the diffused brands.


Regardless of the types of governments and their politicalideological orientation, the State through public policy embodied in a legal-legal norm and an administrative-organizational structure (ministries, institutes, secretariats, etc.) with programprojects and budget, has the following functions in the EDTEE [5]:
Adapt the Participation of the Country to the Organizational Nature of the Show: When the organizermanager is the ODM, it arranges, prepares and guarantees the participation of its national team in the event. If the organizersmanagers are Transnational Professional Clubs or transnational companies, support the events and contribute to their success.
Produce and Reproduce the Sporting Ideology, Incorporating it into its Ideological Baggage and Legitimizing Itself, Making Sport One of its Ideological Apparatuses: Regardless of the result of the country’s participation (win or lose) in events, the State will legitimate with the support and promotion that makes the sport through public policy, thus operating the process of conversion of sport into an ideological apparatus. Obviously, the legitimacy of the State increases when the country obtains victories - by winning competitions and / or organizing events - that are identified with state management. In addition, the State extends the sports ideology to the rest of the social scenarios.
Financing, Disseminating the Sports Ideology, Exercising Violence and Creating the Conditions that Guarantee the Success of the Show in Its Territory (being the venue): The operational part of the shows is the responsibility of the National Organizing Committee formed by the host State , private organizations and the national instance of the ODM (in the OG and World Cup are the Olympic Committee and the National Federation) that works with its international instance, which is the highest authority of the event, which in the case of the It is the IOC and in the World Cup it is FIFA. The IOC and FIFA have reinforced and hold absolute power both events and the funding has been transferred to the State:
“In September 1995, the IOC announced that as of 2004, the share of television rights granted to Olympic city centers would fall from 60% to 49%, that is, the revenues of the National Organizing Committee will be reduced ... FIFA announced on 03- 23-17 that will eliminate the National Organizing Committees ... and will take total control of the organization of the World Cups from 2026 to generate more income, minimize costs and be more effective ... “(Diario Peru 21: 03- 04-17; Altuve, 2018: 178- 179). “The London 2012 OG cost more than US $ 17,500 million, of which the State financed 83.48% (US $ 14,610 million)” (America, economy, economy, markets and finances: 19-12-12); In the 2014 Soccer World Cup and the 2016 OG of Brazil, the investment was, mainly, public: “It was - according to the State - 21 billion US $. For Zimbalist it is between 35-40 billion US $. The final cost has not been specified ..., but ... it is much higher than the state appraisals because investment is missing ...: 1) To compete and win the venue of the events ... 2) At the opening and closing ceremonies ... 3) In the overpricing in the construction and remodeling of the infrastructure “ [6].
The State produces and reproduces the sports ideology highlighting the advantages and benefits of hosting a successful event, guaranteed by the investments made and exercising symbolic and physical violence to ensure the normal performance of the show. Obtaining certain remunerations through taxes, by the economic impact generated, etc.

Edtee, Automobilistic, Energy and Communications Industries: Rectoral Activities or “Punta” of the Lícita World Economy

The communication, automotive and energy industries participate in EDTEE, as can be seen (Altuve: 2016 and 2018):
Olympic Games (OG): Among its main sponsors are: ATOS, General Electric, Panasonic and Samsung (communications) in the OG 2016, 2012 and 2008; Bridgestone (rubbers - automobile) at OG 2016; ACER and Lenovo (communications) in the OG 2012 and 2008. Sponsors of the 2012 OG: BMW (automotive); British Petroleum and British Telecom (energy: oil and gas) EDF Energy Électricité (energy: electricity).
Soccer World Cups: Among its main sponsors are: Sony (communications) and South Korean Auto MC (automobile) in the 2014-2010 World Cups; Continental AG (automotive supplement), Hyundai (automobile) and Deutsche Telekom, Philips, Toshiba and Yahoo (communications) in the World Cup 2006. Exclusive sponsors of the 2010 World Cup: Continental AG (automotive); Castrol lubricants from British Petroleum (energy company), who was also a sponsor of the 2012 European Football Championship and the 2014 World Cup; MTN GROUP (communications), who in football has also sponsored the League of Africa, on 03-18-2010 signed a sponsorship agreement with the Manchester United Giants and was a sponsor of APOELFC Nicosia of Cyprus, in 2012; Satyam (communications) and Yingu Solar Energy (solar energy), who was the first Chinese company to sponsor the FIFA World Cups in 2010 and 2014, and in 2011 was the Official Premium Sponsor of FC Bayern Munich-Germany and the FC Bayern 2012 Youth Tournament.
Transnational Professional Clubs: In 2008-2009, Audi (automobiles) and Solaria (energy) were sponsors of Real Madrid. d) Tours of France and Giro d’Italia 2010. They were organized by Amaury Sport Organization and RCS Sport, owned, respectively, by Philippe Amaury Publications and RCS Media group (communications).
Formula One (F1): Since 07-09-2016 F1 is owned by Liberty Media (communications). In 2010 LG Electronics Inc (communications) was a global sponsor. The automotive is essential because it brings the cars of competition and participate as teams or teams. Following are presented-for 2010-five teams or teams with their owners:
a) Vodafone McLaren Mercedes: Vodafone (communications), Mclaren (automobile, etc.) and Mercedes (automotive).
b) Red Bull Renault: Red Bull and Renault (car).
c) Scuderìa Ferrari Marlboro: Ferrari (car).
d) Lotus F1 Racing: Malaysia Racing Team SDN BHD, belonging to Tune Group (communications) and Naza Group (automobile).
e) 75% of the Mercedes GP Petronas F1 Team belonged to Mercedes-Benz (automotive).

Base of the Power in the Edtee: International Division in Medalls-Champions and in the Economic Benefits

The concentration of power in sport begins with the regressive distribution of the medals-champions, emerging the International Division, that is, the specialization of a small group of countries to win and the vast majority specializing in losing.

International Division in the World Cup Operates on Two Levels

a) Winners or Protagonists of the World Cups 1970- 2014: The protagonism is concentrated in Brazil, Federal Germany, Argentina, Italy, France and Spain, which have been the champions and occupied 19 of the 36 positions from 2nd to 4th place, and in much lesser degree, in the countries that occupied the other 17 semifinalist positions: 14 Europe; 2 America and 1 Asia. The specialists in losing are those attending the World Cups that did not reach the semifinals and the rest of the world that participated in the qualifiers.
b) Assignment of Quotas-Countries to the Continents and Contribution of Players from the Professional Clubs to the National Teams, in the 2014 World Cup: Europe had 13 (40.6%) quotas-countries and 190 of their Clubs contributed 563 (76, 4%) players, of which 176 were contributed by 17 Clubs from Germany, England, Italy and Spain; the rest of the world was assigned 19 (59.4%) quotas-countries and their Clubs contributed 171 (22.1%) players. America: 1) It had 9 countriesplaces (Brazil is included by venue) and the other 3 continents 10. 2) Their Clubs contributed 102 players and together Asia, Africa and Oceania 69 (ECA: 07-08-14). There is an international division with: Europe, led by Germany, Italy, Spain, France and England has prominence with the first places in the World Cups and the largest allocation of seats-countries, and their Clubs bring the largest number of players to the World Cup; America, in second place of countries-places, its protagonism is reduced to Brazil and Argentina and it was assigned the production of players (raw material) exportable to Europe that allows to guarantee the success of the spectacle of the Professional Clubs and the World Cup:
“They are the biggest exporters ... to the Clubs ...: With 20% in 2011 ...; in 2013 Argentina with 1,945 and Brazil with 944 headed the ranking; between January 2011 and June 2014, Brazil transferred 2,311 players, of which 1,311 (56.72%) went to Europe ...; in 2014, the Brazilians were protagonists in 1,493 operations ... followed by Argentina (801) ...; in 2015 the most transferred players are Brazilians with ... 512 ... Argentina with 254 ... is the second. The Professional Clubs of Europe endow the Worlds with most of the players: The World Cups are privileged scenarios ... where negotiable players are displayed for the competitions of the Professional Clubs and thus continue repeating the cycle indefinitely in which FIFA participates, who paid US $ 70 million to distribute an average of US $ 2,800 for each day a player was in the 2016 World Cup , shared between the current team and any other team for which he had played in the 2 years of the tie “ [7].

International Division in the OG 1996-2012 operates on four levels

a) General: Winners are 15 (7.31%) countries (Group of Nine, Ukraine, Holland, Spain, Australia, South Korea and Cuba) who obtained 3,053 (66.35%) medals. Losers are the rest of the world, led by 92 (44.87%) countries WITHOUT medals and the following groups: 1) 39 (19.02%) countries (P) obtained 68 (1.47%) medals (M). 2) 38 P (18.53%) gained 508 (11.04%). 3) 11 P (5.36%) obtained 367 (7.97%). 4) 10 P (4.87%) gained 605 (13.14%).
b) Inter Continents: Medals won by Europe 2,357 (51.09%), America 926 (20.07%), Asia 874 (18.91%), Oceania 267 (5.78%) and Africa 177 (3, 81%).
c) Between Continents: Europe: Winners: 8 P (3.88%: Russia, Germany, England, France, Italy, Ukraine, Holland and Spain) earn 1,478 (32.03%). Losers: 41 P (19.91%) who won 879 (19.06%). America: Winners: 3 P (1.46%: USA, Cuba and Brazil) get 710 (15.39%) M. Losers: 38 (18.44%) who won 216 (4.68%). Asia: Winners: 3 P (1.46%: China, South Korea and Japan) earn 636 (13.78%) M. Losers: 42 (20.4%) P who won 238 (5.13%). Oceania: Winners: 2 P (0.98%: Australia and New Zealand) earn 266 (5.76%) M. Losers: 15 countries (7.27%) that won 1 (0.02%). Africa: Winners: 9 P (4.39%: Kenya, Ethiopia, South Africa, Nigeria, Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Zimbabwe and Tunisia) earn 161 (3.49%) M. Losers: 44 (21.35%) P who won 16 (0.32%).
d) Interior of a Continent (Latin America and the Caribbean in America): Winners: 7 P (3.41%: Cuba, Brazil, Jamaica, Argentina, Mexico, Colombia and Trinidad and Tobago) earn 297 (6.45%) M. Losers: 32 countries (15.6%) that earned 36 (0.78%) “(Altuve, 2008: 214-217). In OG 2016 20 countries (9.8%) won 672 (68.99%) medals and 117 (57.35%) won NO; the Group of Nine obtained 489 (50.2%) and Latin America and the Caribbean won 67 (6.87%).
The International Division and concentration of power in sport is extended with its conversion into EDTEE and the deepening of the regressive distribution of the economic benefits produced. With fewer and fewer exceptions confirming the rule, the winning athletes-competitors come from a small group of countries led by the Group of Nine; If we add to this, the transnational companies that organize shows, sponsors, media and sporting goods, are the ones who appropriate the highest volumes of income produced by EDTEE and come from that group of countries, we are facing a competitive and economic cycle that begins and ends in the US, Europe, Japan and China, with an important appropriation of the benefits by the MDG. The public sports policy of these few national states with power in sport is identified and serves their interests and those of their transnational’s, while most of the states without or with little power, adapt their public policy to a foreign sports dynamic to your interests.

Second Part

Edtee and Great Industry of Health and Welfare

a) Sports as Producer-Player of Capitalist Ideology: The establishment of industrial capitalist society based on the principle of performance and cult of the body from a reasonably profitable perspective, materializes in the movement with the transformation -among others- of its ludic aspect, replaced by modern sport, conceived as a comparison of bodily performances to appoint champions, record records or obtain medals and trophies.
Modern sport is the result of industrial capitalism, it is a product of society where -for the first time in historyperformance becomes the central category, in the concept that guides, organizes, determines and serves as a reference for the functioning of the institutions. It arises in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century fulfilling an ideological function, because it produces and reproduces the ideas of performanceproductivity- profitability-linear and infinite progress, State- Nation, ideas-base of capitalist society, and is presented as a space social hierarchy and democratic differentiation, equality, fraternity, noble struggle, peace, fair competition, honesty, in opposition to the conflicts between the capitalist powers that led to the first (28-07-1914 to 11-11-1918) and second World War (01-09-1939 to 02-09-1945).
In globalization, the ideological function of sport has been broadened and perfected with the intervention of the media, producing and reproducing the ideas of:
a) To be a universal social space of absolute egalitarianism, in contrast to the aberrant differences in production, consumption and enjoyment of existing goods between nations and between social classes and serving as a justification for such inequalities.
b) The record-champion as a symbol and expression of progress and recognition of individual effort, representation of the Nation-State and synthesis of the greatest human virtues.
c) Individual physical perfection based on science and technology, recorded in the record and materialized in the champion’s body.
d) The collective physical perfection or corporal wellbeing for all the bodies of the buyers-fanatics-consumer public, achievable through the consumption of the body, by the body and for the body, when contemplating the sports spectacle. Collective happiness is achieved by consuming inherent and / or associated merchandise objects, linked and identified with the sport, particularly with the recordchampion (corporal image of the champion, model of overcoming, healthy body, patriotism-nationalism, etc.)
By producing and reproducing the ideas of performanceproductivity- profitability-linear and infinite progress, State- Nation, individual and collective physical perfection, well-being of all and ideal model of human coexistence, sport is presented as an archipelago of happiness in the midst of a storm of unhappiness that is the rest of society, becoming the illuminating beacon to which other social institutions must follow; becoming a source of consolation, hope and resignation, because despite the abysmal social differences in sports we are all equal and the transition to happiness is not so far, it will be achieved as the rest of society look more and more like the sport. This is the ideological function of the sport turned into a Transnational Entertainment and Entertainment Company (EDTEE), it is the globalizing sports ideology.

Health, Sport, Economy and Ideology

The medicine has been:
“Since the eighteenth century a fundamental tool in the management of the population and a decisive resource for the incorporation of bodies in the productive order of capitalism,” transiting processes whose result “has been an absolute medicalization of society and full identification of the problem of health with the interests of the economy” [8].
In the 20th century, we assist to:
“A broad and unlimited process of medicalization” is the unstoppable extension of the medical paradigm in our culture. With the doctors and their knowledge as decisive, it has been “Imposed by an act of authority and its object is not only related to the disease, but with a broad and diffuse concept of health”, it does not recognize the existence of a territory external to the Medical codes and medicine became one of the components of the economy “because it produces wealth for itself given that health becomes a consumer good representing a wish for some and a luxury for others”. In other words, “medicine leads to the incorporation of health and disease into the game of the market, with its production agents (laboratories, pharmacists, doctors, clinics, insurers) and with their consumers (the real patients and the potential sick people that we are all) “.
The irruption of health in the economy produces the perverse effect of generating:
“An infinite demand and a generalized dissatisfaction of the client, since the increase of the medical consumption does not suppose an improvement of the level of health, unlike how it is promised”. What it brings as consequences: 1) The creation of a growing and changing “frontier offer with respect to medicine, which ensures new experiences of physical wellbeing, other nutritious alternatives and other modes of body stylization”, covered with “a series of consumer goods that resort to the ideal of healthy life: low calorie food products, programs and instruments of physical conditioning, etc. “2) The infinite demand for health by customers produces enormous economic benefits for large pharmaceutical companies, which they intervene with more prominence in medicalization and decrease that of doctors. “Around this need for intervention ..., a whole industry of commercial interests flourishes. There are, for example, companies that market over time to doctors (usually scarce and, therefore, valuable in the logic of supply and demand) selling it to pharmacists’ visitors ... There are also other types of transnational companies, such as International Marketing Services Health or Close Up, which collect information about the medicines prescribed by doctors, build profiles on their prescription habits and design huge databases that are then purchased by large pharmaceutical companies in important figures of money”.
In globalization:
“The medicalization of society has succeeded ... capture the body as an object of consumption and production of capital. Healthy lifestyles, the care of food, the need to have a body in shape are promoted, not only as a way to reinforce the primacy of individualistic interest, but also as a way to create a market where at first it seemed not exist”. The institution of health produces and reproduces the individualist ideology of capitalism and hides the existing authentic power relations, as it is “A mode of relationship of the subject with its own corporeality. A mode of relationship with oneself that is useful for a system that seeks the decomposition of bonds of solidarity between subjects. Individualization works, therefore, as a tool that privatizes or personalizes the structural contradictions of the capitalist system. In this way, the invisibility of these conflicts is ensured and the global order advances in its perpetuation. The health industry, in this sense, would play a decisive role in the construction of an immune society10, of individuals locked in the aseptic space and assured of their privacy, afraid of the contagion that may come from the outside and that embodies alterity” [8].
Sport and health have become important economic activities and are producer-reproducers of capitalist ideology in their specific field of action. They fed each other and simultaneously in the processes of conversion into economic activities and producer-reproducers of the capitalist ideology. The ideal of healthy life and body in the form of medicine finds reciprocity and complement in the idea of corporal well-being for all of sports, is part of the ideological production-reproduction of both institutions in order to justify, make viable and advance their conversion in economic activities: The EDTEE that aims to convert all the inhabitants of the planet into a public-fanaticconsumer of the spectacle that it produces intensively and extensively every day; and the great health industry to cover the infinite and unsatisfied demand for health that it created and creates permanently (in 2016, global health expenditures were just over US $ 3.88 trillion).
A close relationship between EDTEE and the big health industry is established:
a) The entire medical device and infrastructure of the large health industry was installed in the EDTEE: sports medicine with its annexes and similar (nutrition, psychology, technology, etc.), on the one hand, sustains the material production of record-champions feeding the idea of individual physical wellbeing, and, on the other, it becomes a foundation and reference of obligatory and indispensable consumption so that the publicfanatic -consumer of the sport can access the collective physical well-being.
b) The device that produces record-champions (subjecting the body of athletes-competitors in the object of scientific experimentation and in the use of materials and instruments in the preparation, training and competence) of the EDTEE, was installed in the large industry of health, who by reworking it and adapting it to the needs of ordinary people, on the one hand, considerably broadens its offer of services, and, on the other, it is legitimate, promising well-being, a healthy body and a healthy life.
For more Open Access Journals in Juniper Publishers please click on: https://juniperpublishers.com
For more articles in Journal of Physical Fitness, Medicine & Treatment in Sports
please click on: https://juniperpublishers.com/jpfmts/index.php
For more Open Access Journals please click on: https://juniperpublishers.com
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The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain
There is not going to be one blockchain to rule them all, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Interoperability is key to unlocking the true potential of blockchain, where it will have a profound effect across all industries, creating a secure, trusted and hyper-connected world.
The rise of The Networks of Networks, interconnecting all DLT Networks, existing off-chain networks and even the Internet itself. Where true, scalable interoperability can be achieved without requiring connected chains to fork their code and imposing limitations, without the overhead, bottleneck and single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle. Where it will be quick, easy and free to participate.
It’s time to stop the childish tribalism that’s plagued this space for so long and realise the bigger picture. Tribes fighting amongst themselves over a tiny insignificant island where there is a whole world out there to conquer if they work together. A rising tide lifts all boats and with the birth of The Network of Networks all connected projects can benefit from the efforts of each other, to usher in Mass adoption of Blockchain.
In this article I will discuss the foundations that are being laid in preparation for the release of Overledger Network, The Network of Networks to make all of this possible and to unleash the true potential of blockchain with a secure, hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Table of Contents:
  1. Overledger SDK Update
  2. Standards
  3. Security
  4. Regulation
  5. Overledger Network
  6. The Five Ingredients of Interoperability
  7. Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger
  8. Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain
  9. Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Overledger SDK Update

Quant have just released their Overledger SDK update which has enabled standardisation of objects to abstract and simplify how to interact with different types of blockchains (UXTO and Account-based) in a common model. As well as the ability to directly deploy, invoke and query smart contracts directly through Overledger. I strongly recommend reading the teams Overledger SDK Update which explains it in more detail and includes example use cases of how Overledger is being used and the benefits it brings. Dr Luke Riley also did a fantastic job providing an in-depth demo of the Overledger SDK Update via Video as well.

“This update sets the foundations to build the ecosystem for Overleger Network, allowing stakeholders other than Quant to write any type (DLT and non-DLT) Overledger connectors and sets up the ecosystem with multiple entry points for Overledger Gateways. These updates open up the integration capabilities of Overledger to 3rd parties and create the foundations for the Overledger Network”


“Trusted standards mean that industry doesn’t need to reinvent the wheel, that innovations will be compatible and work with existing technology, and that products and services will be trusted too. Governments use standards as trusted solutions to complement regulation, and they give peace of mind to consumers who know they are not putting themselves or their families at risk.” — Acting ISO Secretary-General Kevin McKinley
The foundations need to align with internationally recognised standards as they play a crucial role in ensuring interoperability with new and existing technology and validates a product meets the best practices / regulation required to ensure Enterprises remains in compliance. CEO of Quant, Gilbert Verdian, founded the ISO TC 307 standard covering blockchain as a whole, which 56 countries are working towards today.
Countries involved with ISO TC 307 — https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604.html?view=participation
Gilbert Verdian is the chairman for the ISO TC 307 working group for interoperability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems as well as being chairman for Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology for BSI (British Standards Institution) which represent the UK and includes companies such as Quant, IBM, Microsoft, HSBC, BAE Systems, Huawei as well as a number of UK Government bodies such as BEIS — Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Defence Science and Technology and the National Cyber Security Centre.
The standardisation updates to the Overledger SDK aligns with the work in ISO TC 307 and academic work from Dr Paolo Tasca and Dr Claudio Tessone to provide users with a clear distributed ledger data standard. This will enable everyone to easily create connectors in a standard way, facilitating interoperability with all of the connected blockchains / non-DLT networks that are already connected to Overledger through Overledger Gateways.


Cybersecurity is in Quant’s DNA. The team have a rich heritage of working for Governments, banks and industry for over 20 years protecting organisations and people from security threats. Before Quant, Gilbert Verdian was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) where he was in charge of security for the entire payments infrastructure in the UK (£6 Trillion per year).
Gilbert has led a team determined to take security to another level, protecting a critical part of the UK’s infrastructure, protecting UK citizens and businesses from fraud and risk and, by extension, allowing them to live as they want to. Under Gilbert’s guidance, Vocalink security is not merely best-in-class, but setting a new standard. — https://connect.vocalink.com/2017/july/a-winning-streak/
In addition to Quant being selected as a Guarantor for Pay.UK, Gilbert has also been appointed to the Cybersecurity Advisory Board (Pay.UK is the UK’s leading retail payments authority and runs the UK’s retail payments operations, which includes Bacs, Faster Payments and Cheques.)
The pillars of security are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. As such, they have used their experience in running payment and financial infrastructure and critical national infrastructure for nations and embedded these principles into every aspect of Overledger.


Regulation is playing an ever increasing role for blockchain. Standards and Security naturally complement and help define regulation. The verticals Quant are involved in with regards to regulation span the globe. Gilbert helped shape the conversation about consumer data protection rights during his time as CISO of NSW Health, and is continuing to serve as a cornerstone for policy within the adoption of blockchain in public infrastructure. Quant serves as a founding member of INATBA (The International Association of Trusted Blockchain Applications), which is the formal governing body of the European Blockchain Partnership, all of which is overseen in Brussels by the EU. More locally, Gilbert and team are in consistent contact with the House of Lords within the UK, and advises the FCA in matters regarding cryptoassets.
As recently seen in the SDK update, Overledger can serve as a key component of automatic compliance of governance bodies’ financial regulation, shown here by an Overledger instance reporting to the BoE’s Prudential Regulation Authority. Project BARAC, stewarded by University College London, is a project examining the impact Automatic Regulation as administered by Blockchain can have on the Federal Government. Most notably, the FCA and R3, the developers of Corda, are involved here. Gilbert’s recent engagements with the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston also seem to revolve around this very topic, with the Boston Fed pilot-testing a Supervisor Node for automatic regulatory compliance. While at P2PFISY 2019, it was noted by Gilbert that Raphael Auer’s “Regulation Automata” aligns very well with the vision of Overledger, with Paolo Tasca, former CSO of Quant, more recently co-hosting a recent blockchain panel with him. Raphael’s ideas will most likely be taken into consideration by the BIS, as they recently announced a trial of a 6 central banks collaboration centered around exploring CBDC, and are in the early stages of installing Innovation Hubs in Hong Kong, Switzerland, and Singapore.
Gilbert Verdian with Guy Dietrich (Managing Director at Rockefeller Capital who is also on the Board at Quant) attending a meeting with the Financial Conduct Authority

Overledger Network

The Overledger Network is a network of networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies. Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains. The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with.
As per the example use case in the recent update a Bank can run an Overledger Gateway to provide access to the various consortiums hosted on a variety of blockchains including Corda, Hyperledger Fabric and JP Morgan’s Quorum as well as access to the legacy / non-DLT platforms. Should they want to utilise a public blockchain as well in a hybrid scenario then they also have the option of using a Overledger Gateway hosted by a community member.
The Overledger Gateways contain several layers which we will explore some of their features below:

Overledger Operating System

Overledger allows connection to any blockchain / DAG as well as easily integrating with existing non-DLT environments. It does this without adding the overhead of yet another blockchain / consensus in the middle, ensuring that it’s scalable and doesn’t contain a single point of failure. Nor does it require the connected blockchains to fork their code to integrate and place restrictions on what can be implemented going forward. All of this is done in a secure, trustless manner where transactions are signed and encrypted client side so the contents can’t be viewed / modified as they pass through Overledger. It currently connects all of the leading permissioned and permissionless blockchains used by enterprises today. This article explains the differences between other interoperability solutions and the benefits of Quant’s approach

The Five Ingredients of Interoperability:

Recently there was an interoperability webinar with Fintech connect with speakers such as R3’s CTO Richard Gendal Brown, along with representatives from the Bank of England, Deutsche Boerse, Nasdaq, ArchaxEx and SwissRe. Richard Gendal Brown from R3 wrote about the Five key Ingredients of Interoperability:
  1. INTEGRATE with existing business systems — Businesses aren’t going to replace their existing applications for new blockchain ones, they need to integrate with their existing systems.
  2. INITIATE Payments on existing rails or blockchain rails — Needs to be able to make a payment / settlement using a wide variety of existing payment rails (off chain) as well as blockchain rails, ensuring delivery vs payment can be achieved with certainty that they have happened.
  3. INTERCHAIN applications and smart contracts that can be deployed / executed across protocols — Enabling a solution built on Corda such as Marco Polo to easily connect to a solution on another platform such as Vakt on Ethereum or CargoSmart on Hyperledger Fabric etc
  4. INTRACHAIN applications that benefit from value add of same underlying protocol — What happens when networks such as Marco Polo and Contour both running on Corda want to interoperate and the additional value and benefit that can be achieved.
  5. INTERCHANGE applications to switch platforms — What happens if you want to interchange one platform for another. Can you achieve that holy grail of interoperability by being able to be completely agnostic to the underlying platform?
Overledger meets all of these key ingredients in performing interoperability. Overledger enables existing business systems to benefit from blockchain connectivity by adding as little as 3 lines of code to their existing applications. No need to completely rewrite / replace their existing systems and all done in the most common programming languages such as Java and JavaScript.
At QuantX in December they announced Overledger Interchange which enables settlement on a variety of existing non-dlt payment rails such as Faster Payments, BACS, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT as well as on DLT payment rails such as with Central Bank Digital Currencies, Stablecoins and XRP. It also facilitates Cross Chain Atomic Swaps using Hash Time Locked Contracts ensuring Delivery vs Payment is achieved. Interchange is at the centre of the discussions Quant has had with traditional exchanges in capital markets and central banks and is a technology financial services have been missing and was built it address client needs.
Overledger enables interoperability within the same ecosystem such as Corda DAPP to another Corda DAPP etc as well as interoperability between any of the connected permissionless and permissioned blockchains.
Quants blockchain agnostic Operating System enables users to benefit from using the best features from different chains in combination and migrate between them, preventing Vendor or Tech Lock in without having to completely rewrite existing applications, achieving the holy grail of interoperability. It enables developers to quickly test a variety of connected blockchains in a sandbox environment to see which is best suited for their requirements, starting with just 3 lines of code.

Transactions Services Layer

The Transaction Services layer handles more complex features of Overledger. Allowing for applications to request services such as cross-chain atomic swaps, treaty contracts (Multi Chain Smart Contracts as well as enabling smart contract functionality even on blockchains that don’t support smart contracts natively such as Bitcoin) and transaction brokering (using heuristic analysis to determine which method is the fastest / cheapest out of the various payment rails)

Financial Services Layer

Financial services features can be called upon by participants and applications to use crosschain and cross-platform. Financial Services specific use cases can use the features in Overledger to operate across networks. This layer provides enhanced privacy and security to regulated entities and institutions who require additional controls to maintain compliance to regulation and security policy. The features of Zero-knowledge Proof and privacy can be mandated for all transactions.

Channels Layer

Channels provide interoperability of services related to digital assets, payments and tokenisation. The Overledger Network allows for participants to transfer interoperate enterprise and institutional issued tokens and assets. Connect to many existing payment rails such as SWIFT, SEPA, Faster Payments etc.
Overledger Network — Network of Networks

Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger

The connectors to Overledger which grant access to Overledger Network will be open source and soon be made available, allowing for anyone to create a connector and benefit from being part of the ecosystem. Currently the permissionless blockchain space is mostly speculation with little adoption, mainly due to issues that need to be resolved such as scalability, privacy and regulation with permissionless blockchains, however there are some extremely large Enterprises, Banks, Governments, even Central Banks getting heavily involved and going into production albeit mostly in the permissioned blockchain space where such issues are not a problem. Just as each Blockchain has its advantages and disadvantages, parts of Enterprise applications are better suited to Permissioned blockchains (such as more sensitive parts) and permissionless blockchains suited for a higher degree of immutability, thus a Hybrid model requiring interoperability between permissioned, permissionless as well as existing non-DLT applications is required arguably for many years ahead. Just as with cloud computing where everything didn’t suddenly just move up into the cloud, well over a decade later since the birth of the likes of Amazon AWS, hybrid is still very prevalent today with only recently the likes of central banks, banks, governments discussing moving more sensitive workloads to public clouds such as Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud etc.

SIA, Central Banks, Banks, Trading Venues

Quant Network partnered with SIA, a game changer for mass blockchain adoption by Financial Institutions. SIA is the leading financial network provider in Europe that connects over 570 Banks, Central Banks, Trading Venues (stock exchanges etc) to their infrastructure. They provide a dedicated private network / infrastructure for financial institutions. Every European financial institution will either connect via SIA, in partnership with Colt or via SWIFT (and in many cases they will have connectivity with both) in order to access the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
SIA have integrated Overledger into their private infrastructure covering Europe consisting of 570 supernodes called SIAChain which enables each bank, central Bank, trading venue etc to utilise Overledger for interoperability. Some of the largest deployments of blockchain are happening on SIAChain such as the Spunta project where the entire Italian Banking Sector will be using blockchain and due to go live next month. As well as the “Fideiussioni Digitali” initiative (Digital Sureties) to digitize the management of sureties using blockchain technology with the Central Bank of Italy involved.
Central Bank Digital Currencies are going to play a hugely significant role in the future and there is one central Bank currently testing Overledger and Quant are in discussions with 4 others.
Connecting your blockchain / legacy network to Overledger enables the possibility that it could be used by any of these connected Banks, Central Banks, Trading venues etc in their private network (obviously due to the amount of regulation and critical financial infrastructure the options are going to be limited on what they want to connect).


Quant are a Fintech Partner with Oracle, the 2nd largest software company in the world and Oracle are taking Quant’s tech to their clients directly. They have 480,000 clients globally and towards the end of last year Oracle invited Quant to attend Sibos (SWIFT) where they met existing financial services and banking clients and introduced to new ones. By connecting to Overledger this also enables your solution to potentially be used by those 480,000 of Oracle’s global clients.



SIMBA Chain is a cloud-based, smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps (decentralized applications). The easy-to-use platform is tailored for users, developers, government, and enterprises to quickly deploy blockchain dapps for their enterprise. SIMBA Chain are developing on Quant’s Overledger Blockchain OS to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
SIMBA Chain have recently been awared a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 1100 Organizations and 650+ Applications developed. Partners include Microsoft, Government Blockchain Association, Air Force Research Laboratory, Caterpillar, SAP and EY. Recently they also integrated Unity 3D plugin for Gaming to enable owning, storing, and managing all personal gaming assets across a variety of blockchains.
These are just a few of the companies that Quant have partnered with directly, but the ecosystem for Overledger Network is the Network of Networks. Every connected blockchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple (XRPL), EOS, Stellar, IOTA, DAG, R3’s Corda, Hyperledger Fabric, JP Morgan’s Quorum and other Permissioned Variants of Ethereum) and their associated partners / applications built on them have the ability to connect and interoperate with the other blockchains connected as well as non-DLT networks such as existing payment rails like SWIFT, Faster Payments, SEPA etc. This Network of Network’s effects will grow exponentially as more and more join the ecosystem.


Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain

Quant Network are also developing the ability to allow developers to build MAPPs that integrate directly with the internet as well as blockchain data. They will enable this via creating a new IP address for blockchains which they are calling Quant IP which will enable traffic to be routed from an IP connection from the Internet through Overledger to the connected blockchains.
Another Quant product called Seeq is a distributed search engine that is able to search and retrieve data from multiple blockchains and display them via html directly from the blockchain. More details will be released about Seeq later this year.
Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain will allow websites to be natively created and served directly from blockchains, without the need to have, run and maintain web servers, web services, SSL certificates etc and all running in a completely trusted, extremely resilient / tamperproof environment. The implications of this are enormous and more details will be released by the team later on this exciting prospect. By connecting your blockchain to Overledger you will also be able to benefit from this.

Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Instead of the current mentality of having the main focus for many projects of listing on exchanges for vast sums of money, why not spend a little time (connectors can be created in as little as a week of development and don’t necessarily even need to be created by the team themselves) and make your blockchain / non-DLT application available to be used by all existing enterprises / members. Not only that but if you also run an Overledger Gateway connecting your blockchain node you also benefit from the transaction fees of the traffic going to it. The connectors are open source and completely free to connect and now with the standardisation of Objects in the recent SDK update the foundations are in place for the launch of Overledger Network with an ETA of Q2 2020. If you would like your favourite blockchain project to interoperate and be part of the ecosystem to further adoption then make the relevant people aware and keep an eye out for further details released in the future.


Thanks to community member Ghost of St. Miklos for contributing the section about regulation as well as Sonic for proofreading.
You can find more about Overledger Network as well as the token utility — here and community member David W. wrote an excellent article “A deeper look into the Quant Network Utility Token (QNT) valuation dynamics and fundamentals”
What is a blockchain operating system and what are the benefits? Introducing Overledger from Quant Network.
Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading
Large Enterprise Adoption of Blockchain is happening, enabled by Quant Network’s Overledger
As well as an 8 Part Series taking an indepth look at Overledger starting with Part 1
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