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"What is happening?" | Season of Arrivals | Week Two Lore Recap

Recap Index: Spoilers Within

Alright everyone, welcome back to another lore round up. Season of Arrivals lore has been relentless and theories are popping up left and right on this sub and raidsecrets. This post mainly serves to provide clarification and extended analysis for some of the questions/observations I've been seeing and I take a closer look at some speculation at the end. Here's what we got:
  • What is happening during Contact?
  • Foreshadowing in the Black Garden
  • Where is Osiris?
  • Messages: PROTECTED and EGGSHELL
  • A Short Review of Shin Malphur's Warning and Belief
  • Analysis of the New 'Omolon' Weapons
  • Speculation about Stasis: energy rooted in Darkness
  • Speculation: The Restoration of the Traveler
Disclaimer: there are not nearly as many spoilers as the first week, so I didn't mark them this time, but there are future quest spoilers within (items). There are still more topics out there that are developing like Drifter and Eris' dialogue in the Prophecy Dungeon and more theories to examine like Rasputin's future.
If you didn't catch it last week, here's the Season of Arrivals Week One Lore Recap Post. That one includes a lot of spoilers, so please tread with caution if you haven't seen it. Without further ado, let's get into it.

What's going on during "Contact?"

To keep it as bare bones as possible, "Contact" is the Pyramid's effort of communion and influence: it offers dark energy from a Pyramid Scale to anyone willing to seek its power and hear its message. We are effectively making contact with the Pyramid for a multitude of reasons:
During Contact, Savathûn sends Taken scouts to survey the Pyramid Scale and prevent Guardians from charging the Seed with Darkness. Eris reminds us that not all Taken we encounter are from the same allegiance and are no longer connected to Oryx: we have recently noticed Taken allegiances through Savathûn, Quria, Riven, and even Xivu Arath.
Also, with the arrival of the Pyramid on Io, the citizens of the Last City are living in fear of the Pyramid Fleet showing up at any given moment. While the people look to each other, the powers of the City prepare for the worst and Zavala even informs the Guardian that the City is preparing for a possible siege as the Tower's resources are thinning.

Foreshadowing in the Black Garden

The Vex have been preparing for the arrival of the Pyramid Fleet and are no stranger to the Darkness's power and use of Stasis since the Black Heart awakened Vex from their frozen rapture years ago. Upon reaching the summit of the Tree in the Black Garden, we learn the Vex's Sol Divisive were worshiping a Pyramid Scale at the Tree of Creation. The Vex were resonating Light and Dark energy sources to understand and commune with a Pyramid Scale: the Darkness - the same Darkness that devoured the Kentarch 3's Light in an instant.
The Vex's downfall at the Tree in the Black Garden led to the Sanctified Mind becoming "frozen in rapture" - trapped in stasis - captured by their divinity. Then, when we met with Osiris, he informed us that the course of history was changed when the Undying Mind was slain. With its death, the Pyramids decided it was time and the Vex realized what the future would become: a universe consumed by Darkness.

What's going on with Osiris? Where is he?

There's a lot of questions surrounding the golden phoenix himself and Drifter tells us that the Vanguard can't find Osiris. The last time we heard from him:
While there's some debate whether the Seed of Silver Wings was planted by Osiris, someone on raidsecrets found something seemingly out of place in the Cradle: a coin with a familiar looking Eye on it.
Current speculation: some are comparing this symbol to the Trials of Osiris Symbol implying that this symbol may be associated with Osiris, more specifically a "Trace of Osiris," implying that Osiris visited the Cradle on Io.
"But where is Osiris now?"
Since planting the seed - regardless of where it was planted - my guess is that Osiris may possibly be deep in the Infinite Forest trying to extract/learn whatever he can from the Vex before the Infinite Forest is sealed.

Eris's First and Second Deciphered Messages

The first message Eris deciphered was called "PROTECTED:" Eris's understanding is that "the Darkness does not believe the Traveler to be as benevolent as we do" and that the Darkness views us as not achieving our full potential because of the Traveler's protection.
Generally, we view the Traveler as benevolent because of the gifts it bestowed upon humanity leading up to the Collapse and the sacrifices it has made since. I think Rasputin analyzed the Traveler's actions during the Collapse perfectly: "Coerce pseudoaltruistic [O] defensive action."
  • Coerce = Force
  • Pseudo = Not Genuine
  • Altruistic = Unselfish or Selfless (the opposite of Selfish)
My interpretation of Rasputin's assessment is that the Traveler forced itself into protecting Humanity because Humanity would be caught in the crossfire of their ancient war. The Traveler's sacrifice may have had good intent, but Rasputin assessed that the Traveler's motive was inherently selfish since it is acting out of survival, thus creating the Ghosts as a final stand against the Darkness fully-knowing the suffering it would bring to Humanity.
The second message Eris deciphered was called "EGGSHELL:" Eris's understanding is that "the Darkness sees the Traveler as something keeping us isolated from the outside world. It is a barrier we are meant to outgrow - and break through" and it would not need to entice us if it could destroy us without effort.
The Darkness is calling us fragile and impermanent... and it's actually true beyond our own facades and perspectives. An example of this is when the Darkness found the Kentarch 3 in the Black Garden and it drained the Light from their Ghosts in the blink of an eye. The Darkness wants us to abandon the Traveler for a different kind of power and now the question begs: will we be able to defend the Traveler while harnessing the Dark without becoming corrupted?
I think people may be misunderstanding my use of Ghost Fragment: Rasputin 5 - I understand it's primary interpretation is for Rasputin's contingency plan. My intent was to breakdown the complexity of “coerce pseudoaltruistic [O] defensive action” but from the perspective of the Traveler, which conveys the Darkness’s understanding of a paracausal being’s nature: benevolence is not its nature, it was a decision - the Traveler's sacrificial choice. The Traveler may gift life, but that's not to say it is intrinsically "good." It influences the fabric of this universe and Drifter learns that while the Light and the Dark aren't the same, "the difference don't matter."

Shin Malphur's Warning and Belief

With the introduction of Stasis in Beyond Light and our use of the Darkness, an old warning has resurfaced. To my knowledge, no new information has appeared regarding Shin, but his name has come up a few times recently, so let's review Shin's perspective.
So go forth. Fight for the Light, and challenge the dark. I will be watching with a hopeful heart.
But know, should you overreach—should the consequences of the steps you take catch innocents in your wake, should your path veer blindly toward the perversion of your will and the whispers become your truth—I will be there to end it. And you. But you already knew I was going to say that.
Understand, this is not a threat, it's just the way of things.
While Shin has warned the Guardian of the consequences of overstepping, he also believes that the Guardian is among those few who can walk the line between the Light and Dark and that we are the guiding light:
This isn't to say we must give ourselves freely to the shadows. Far from it, and quite the opposite. We must instead bend those shadows to our will. Infuse them with Light such that their sickness dims, but their power remains.
With that belief, Shin also enlightens the Guardian of the dark's promise: nothing ends - there will always be another whisper.

Analysis of the Darkness-Infused Omolon Weapons

Surprisingly, nothing. To our current knowledge, Omolon isn't producing Darkness-Infused (Pyramid-Focused) weapons, but Drifter is modifying Omolon weapons with contained Dark-Energy extracted from a Pyramid Scale. Here's a quick recap on Omolon's design focus.
Omolon are the pioneers of energy weaponry: the first foundry to experiment beyond the world of combustion ballistics. Omolon is all about creating Guardian weaponry from salvaged Golden Age tech and while they are well known for their signature liquid ammo, they've also developed a matter transmuter that turns ammo into energy as weaponized waveform (sound).
There's a misconception that I've seen floating around that needs to be clarified:
"Omolon doesn't make swords (referencing Falling Guillotine). It can't be Omolon."
This logic is flawed (example): SUROS wasn't mass producing Hand Cannons until the Red War (D2) and Omolon wasn't mass producing sidearms until the Red War. While foundries are known for making specific types of weapons, Omolon is no stranger to experimenting and Drifter is also known for stealing Foundry ad City supplies, including gear that Foundries didn't get mass-produced because of things like safety failure tests.
"How do we know that Falling Guillotine is Omolon?"
Check out the 87th Seasonal Reward: Falling Guillotine's Ornament called "Riptide" that has Omolon branded on the weapon.
"What about the other new weapons from this season? Are they also Omolon?"
Yes; however, it's safe to be skeptical of the Arc Sword and Bow without more examples:

Stasis: Eris's Inheritance and Our Pursuit

Some of you have probably already connected these dots (example), but if you're out of the loop and/or have been playing since Shadowkeep, you probably remember that cutscene where Eris enters the Pyramid on the Moon and interacts with the Veiled Statue. Eris has been severed from the Light ever since she sought revenge against Crota for the Great Disaster and now the Dark has granted her paracausal power.
This may not have been apparent at the time, but we now know that Eris wields a power of the Dark - for reference, compare this image of Eris from the Beyond Light Trailer and this image of a Guardian surrounded by Stasis from Beyond Light.
Current speculation: with the announcement of Stasis, people have been speculating how we will acquire it and we might have a clue. With the prismatic recaster and the dark energy acquired from Pyramid Scales using Drifter's Bank, we are gradually corrupting it into a Seed of Darkness. We once acquired a Seed of Light and used it to enhance our own Light, which expanded our understanding and power of the Light (granted new subclass paths).
If a Seed of Light is a manifestation of the Traveler's power, then a Seed of Darkness is a manifestation of the Pyramid's power. While Stasis is rooted in Darkness, it functions as a fundamental force or energy like: Solar (Strong Nuclear Force), Arc (Electromagnetic Force), and Void (Gravitational Force), which should make Stasis - previously thought to be "Wither" - aligned with Weak Nuclear Force.

The Restoration of the Traveler

Disclaimer: This is full-blown speculation, so please take this with a grain of salt. I'm just looking into this theory to see if there is any validity or possibility here.
Ever since the reveal of the updated director display for Beyond Light (Season 12), some discussion has come up about whether or not we should consider the Traveler's image to be a placeholder or a restored Traveler. Compare it against past director images of the Traveler:
The only evidence we really have is a transmat effect from this season called "Traveler Entrance" and here's a slightly blown-up image of the thumbnail. The image implies, to me at least, the Traveler reforming, or healing, it's exterior.
"Why could a transmat effect count as evidence? Isn't that a reach?"
Normally, I would think it's a reach, but for the past year, transmat effects have been foreshadowing relative events within their seasons. Let's reminisce:
  • Season of the Undying
    • Blackheart Growth = The Vex's attempt to seal the Black Garden and restore/re-grow the Black Heart using the Undying Mind
  • Season of Dawn
  • Season of the Worthy
    • Red Big Entrance = Rasputin's "entrance" or the announcement/declaration of his presence
      • Rasputin's decision to meet with the Guardians (later met with Zavala personally)
      • Rasputin deciding to defend the City and destroys the Almighty
    • SIVA Emergence = Rasputin reveals SIVA fragments and his past
Again, take this with a grain of salt: this is a speculative theory at best.
submitted by a_shadow_of_yor to DestinyLore

The Lounge guide to India in 50 books (longread)

Arundhati Roy’s debut novel had a dream run—a staggering international deal, the 1997 Booker Prize, and rave reviews worldwide. But even without these accolades, it remains one of the most original novels in English about India. Set in Ayemenem, a village in Kerala, the story moves between the 1960s and 1990s, tracing the lives of fraternal twins Rahel and Estha through multiple social and political upheavals. In her unique Indian English idiom, Roy transports the reader to the heart of a family saga, at once beautiful and terrifying, seething with dark secrets, caste violence and forbidden love.
Set in an unnamed Indian city during the Emergency imposed by prime minister Indira Gandhi in 1975, this is a novel of Dickensian amplitude. The lives of four characters, from different social strata, crisscross the narrative. Ishvar and Omprakash Darji, uncle and nephew, flee their village and caste violence to work as tailors in Mumbai. Employed by Dina Dalal, a widow fallen on hard times, they meet Maneck, a Kashmiri youth, boarding with her. Mistry’s sprawling plot weaves together their destinies while bringing alive, with brutal realism, the horrors of the labour camps, sterilization drive and other barbarities.
This iconic collection of poems by the Kashmiri-American writer has become synonymous with the rallying cry for azadi (freedom) for Kashmir. Influenced by diverse forms and styles, from European avant-garde to the ghazal, Ali’s poems mourn the loss of home, the devastations caused by decades of militancy, and the tragedy of exile. His anguish continues to resonate not only with Kashmiri Muslims but also with those living in the diaspora, across generations.
One of India’s most accomplished but underrated writers, Anita Desai memorializes the legacy of Partition in this delicate portrait of a family living in Old Delhi. Through vivid flashbacks, she takes us in and out of her characters’ lives as they struggle to make reparations, come to terms with the past, and keep the fraying fabric of filial ties together. Women play a pivotal role in the plot as a traditional way of life gives way to new values inspired by a rapidly modernizing India.
Published to mark the 50th anniversary of independence, this scholarly but accessible volume reminds us of the first principles on which the Indian republic was founded. Revisiting the Nehruvian ideal of a modern state, Khilnani examines how the dreams of our founding fathers have fared in the social, economic, political and intellectual spheres half a century on. His analysis remains urgent and relevant to this day, when the Indian state seems to be reneging on its values of plurality and secularism.
The renowned poet, translator and scholar A.K. Ramanujan provides a vital link between our present and the past through his writings on Indian culture, history, folklore and philology. His essays, in particular, help us navigate the knottiest questions of identity and belonging. Pieces like Is There An Indian Way Of Thinking and Three Hundred Ramayanas have become classics in their own right, opening our eyes to the rich multiplicity of cultures and literatures that form the foundation of Indian civilization.
Guha’s book answers the question posed in the preface: “How did this most British of games become so thoroughly domesticated in the subcontinent?" You could describe it as a social history of cricket in India, rich in anecdote and insight, making connections between the game and the wider politics of the time (Guha also wrote The States Of Indian Cricket, which focuses on the game). Its detailed portrait of Palwankar Baloo, India’s first Dalit cricketer, is especially stirring.
In Madhuri Vijay’s award-winning novel, the narrator Shalini travels from Bengaluru to Kashmir in the aftermath of her mother’s death, to connect a thread that had snapped during her lifetime. But this personal journey also becomes a lens for her to reckon with the long-standing history of militancy and disaffection in the valley, brewing over the decades. The Far Field takes a fresh look at a humanitarian crisis without indulging in partisan blame games—an invaluable perspective on Kashmir for non-Kashmiri readers from a non-Kashmiri narrator and writer.
Indian classical music is a thickly documented field when it comes to academic studies, but not enough exists by way of popular history. The late Sheila Dhar filled that gap with her beautiful memoir-based essays, shining with humour and her keen eye for the absurd. From the mercurial Kesarbai Kerkar to Bhimsen Joshi’s genius, she luminously profiles the greats of Indian classical music in her inimitable voice. Her personal acquaintance with these legends makes them all the more human and relatable.
BY AMRUTA PATIL (2012 & 2016)
Although existing as separate volumes, these graphic novels are meant to be read as part of a “duology". Crafted by one of India’s foremost graphic novelists, Amruta Patil, these books, with their exquisite artwork, draw inspiration from the Mahabharat. But instead of a conventional retelling of the story, Patil enters the world of the epic through the consciousness of some of its minor, or neglected, characters. This shift of narratorial perspective results in insights that are mesmerizing, thought-provoking, and absolutely eye-opening.
A survey of close to 2,000 years of literary history, this pioneering anthology by two acclaimed scholars seeks to debunk a long-standing false perception. It shows that LGBTQ+ desires go back centuries in the subcontinent—and contrary to the orthodox belief, these feelings are decidedly not imported from the West. Even after the 2018 Supreme Court’s reading down of Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, the book stands as a reminder of truths that still tend to get erased.
This sequence of poems by one of modern India’s greatest poets won the Commonwealth Prize in 1977. Equally adept in Marathi and English, Kolatkar wrote these 31 poems in English. Based on a day trip made by the poet to Jejuri, a temple town in Maharashtra, the poems cover vast and eclectic terrain—faith and reason, tradition and modernity, myth and memory intersect in these lines. These are themes that continue to resonate in contemporary India.
Dom Moraes was a versatile writer, as proficient in prose as in poetry, a sharp journalist, entertaining raconteur, and indisputably cosmopolitan. He shied away from labels and, tellingly, titled one of the several volumes of his autobiography, Never At Home. The rhythms of modern Indian life cannot be felt fully without a taste of his poetry. Among the finest poets of his generation, Moraes was often known as a writer of melancholic verse, but he could be just as funny and scathing when the fancy took him.
Before the advent of the internet and social media, what form did the aspirations of India’s middle class take? Pankaj Mishra’s intimate and endearing travelogue through small-town India is a classic of its kind, painting unforgettable portraits of hope and resilience, soon after India’s economy was opened up. From beauty pageant aspirants to businessmen who dream of travelling abroad, the book is dotted with arresting characters. Despite the gulf of the intervening years, the book retains its freshness and sparkle.
The 1980s saw an explosion of generational Indian talents in the realm of the English novel, with epochal books published almost every year. The Shadow Lines, Amitav Ghosh’s second novel, can certainly make a case to be considered among the best of the lot. A story about the intertwined lives of two families, one Indian and one British, the novel is a meditation on memory, histories, violence and desire. Through vivid storytelling and impeccable research, traits that Ghosh would go on to refine in subsequent books, The Shadow Lines comes very close to being the perfect parable about India’s confused and violent adolescence.
Balram Halwai, a poor, uneducated driver in the employ of a landlord family in Bihar, is an underdog in every sense. But Adiga doesn’t succumb to the easy pickings of making his protagonist a sympathetic character. Balram is as enterprising as he is devious. He might not have read books but he can read people and give them what they want, or deserve. Sometimes, it’s unquestioning loyalty. Sometimes, a bottle smashed on their head. Cynical and darkly funny, The White Tiger stands out for its unforgiving indictment of the various class, caste and social inequities in contemporary India.
Although both economists have written excellent analytical books on India’s economy, their joint effort is, inarguably, a classic. At the time it came out, India had seen an outstandingly successful decade of development, one that had lifted millions out of poverty. As primary architects of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government’s inclusive economic and social policies, Drèze and Sen could have recounted just the successes. But as perceptive economists, they investigate the inequality that’s inherent in economic growth centred on private profit and crony capitalism. Their critique feels more pertinent with each passing year.
If there’s one mode that Indian novelists don’t try very often, it’s comedy. But even if they did, matching the high bar set by Chatterjee’s dark satire of pre-liberalization India would be a difficult task. English, August tells the story of the listless, navel-gazing and profoundly urban Agastya Sen, an English major who joins the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) because it’s the easiest thing he can do. His life in the small town of Madna, completely unmoored in the strangeness of “real India", and his hilarious attempts to derive meaning from his vacuous existence, make for a razor-sharp study of India’s urban-rural divide, as well as a fascinating Bildungsroman.
Curfewed Night is a mix of autobiography and reportage, set in Kashmir and written by a Kashmiri. Basharat Peer, born in south Kashmir’s Anantnag district, sets his book between the 1990s and 2005, painting the portrait of a generation that saw the valley turn into a war zone, starting with himself. In deft, lyrical prose, he chronicles the toll it took on the Kashmiris—both Hindus and Muslims—caught between geopolitical crossfire. More than a decade after its publication, it makes for just as pertinent a read for anyone seeking a nuanced view of the conflict.
BY R.K. NARAYAN (1958)
To pick one novel out of so many great ones by R.K. Narayan is near-impossible but The Guide, with a little help from cinema (though the author didn’t approve of the Dev Anand-Waheeda Rahman film), is arguably his most famous work. It tells the story of Raju, a tourist guide who falls for a married woman who yearns to be a dancer. The ensuing story, which ends up with him impersonating a holy man, is bracingly modern in its treatment of adultery, gender roles and religious charlatanism—though always with that wry Narayan touch.
Through seven layered, colourful profiles of six young men and one young woman realizing their ambitions in the country’s tier-2 cities, journalist Snigdha Poonam tells the story of a post-liberalization, post-internet India where, ostensibly, the old hierarchies are dying, creating a level playing field for young Indians to achieve whatever they dream of. The stories take on nuance and pathos in their telling—this is not a sentimental narrative about Indian jugaad and pulling yourself up by your bootstraps. Rather, it is dense reportage and storytelling that provides a rich glimpse into the constituents of a socially fractured country.
BY D.R. NAGARAJ (2010)
The late D.R. Nagaraj deserves to be read extensively. Writing in English as well as his native Kannada till his untimely death in 1998, he is widely considered one of the foremost non-Brahmin intellectuals since independence—a worthy successor to B.R. Ambedkar. This collection of his essays on Dalit thought, history and culture is an invaluable primer to understanding the Dalit movement and its origins. It also throws light on his masterly and original reading of the relationship between Mohandas Gandhi and Ambedkar, especially in the context of the Hindutva movement that seeks to create a binary of antagonism between the two.
Like Leo Tolstoy’s War And Peace or George Eliot’s Middlemarch, A Suitable Boy is a sprawling doorstopper of a novel. And like the other two, it brings to life a complex society at a certain point in time and in its own history. Combining politics, culture, religion, social upheavals and the conflict between tradition and modernity with spirited storytelling, the novel remains a fascinating read, not least because of the latest screen adaptation by Mira Nair. That it pivots around courtship and marriage makes A Suitable Boy as much a novel of manners as any by Jane Austen. As a chronicle of a newly independent nation, too, it is as accurate as a political documentary—all of it coming together with wit and humour.
BY B.D. GARGA (1996)
Garga was India’s finest film critic writing in English. In this lavishly produced book, illustrated with iconic scenes, behind-the-scenes stills and lobby cards, he tracked the evolution of cinema in the country from the days of the silents to the 1990s, fusing anecdote, criticism and close readings of the films themselves. Garga is especially strong on the early days of Indian cinema, a period neglected by most writers on popular film.
Suketu Mehta’s book is not only the ultimate portrait of Mumbai, it’s created in its image: a torrent of narrative non-fiction that’s busy, loud, memorable and unrelenting. Whether he’s meeting Bollywood stars or breaking bread with underworld sharpshooters, Mehta has an eye for piquant detail. Taking in the city’s storied history and tumultuous present, it’s a work as vast, unsentimental and uncompromising as its subject.
Recently turned into a television series, Vikram Chandra’s magnum opus may look intimidating for its girth, but it moves with the nimble pace of a racy thriller. Set in the Mumbai underworld, this cat-and-mouse chase between police officer Sartaj Singh and ganglord Ganesh Gaitonde cuts through the dark and dangerous heart of the bustling metropolis. Part Bollywood drama and part gripping ethnography, the novel is essential reading for anyone wishing to scratch the surface of Incredible India.
BY V.S. NAIPAUL (1990)
A travelogue unlike any other, this book is the last in a series that Naipaul wrote about his native country. Along with An Area Of Darkness and India: A Wounded Civilization, it paints a relentlessly bleak but bracingly accurate portrait of India post-independence. In Naipaul’s prose, there is no sentimental “romance of the east" or paeans to the nation’s glorious culture and heritage—only a clear-eyed view of the challenges democracy faces in India as it struggles to reconcile its diversities within one framework of governance.
First serialized in Malayalam as Ente Katha in the journal Malayalanadu and published in book form in 1973, My Story was rewritten in English by Das a few years later. It wouldn’t be accurate to say she translated it because she made changes along the way. Part autobiography and part fiction, this controversial book remains an enduring feminist classic for its examination of a patriarchal Kerala society through the life of one woman (who may or may not be wholly Kamala Das). It created a sensation when it was published, and deserves to be widely read even today.
Indian science fiction might still be in its infancy but Vandana Singh’s writing carries with it all the weight and maturity of the science fiction legacy of Ray Bradbury, Isaac Asimov and Margaret Atwood, while seeing the genre through a feminist, post-colonial lens. In this collection of sharp, sublime short stories, nominated for the Philip K Dick Award in 2019, Singh subverts standard tropes of sci-fi—the space opera, the dystopia, climate fiction—to create original stories that talk of an India that might be, one that we are perhaps inexorably moving towards.
Nobody can make the mountains sing like Ruskin Bond. And he does so beautifully in Our Trees Still Grow In Dehra—a timeless classic which won the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1992. Fourteen stories, part autobiographical, take the reader back to a simpler time when the mountains had not degraded drastically. Bond introduces us to vibrant and lively characters from the Himalayan towns and villages that have inhabited his universe over the years—Bippin the ghost, Toto the mischievous monkey who nearly cooked himself alive, Bansi the tongawallah, and Ganpat the bent-double beggar.
BY K.T. ACHAYA (1994)
No other book describes the vast landscape of food in the subcontinent as effectively as this acclaimed classic. Achaya, an oil chemist, food scientist and historian, has looked at the diverse food practices in the country through every possible lens, be it anthropological, literary, botanical or archaeological. The book starts with the food legacies of the early man, accompanied by illustrations of the tools and microliths developed at the time. The chapter on the Harappan spread is a must-read, complete with archaeological evidence and reconstructions of warehouses and storage areas. It is also delightful to come across references to food in literature, be it in the Vedas, Tamil classical poetry or royal chronicles. With chapters on regional cuisine, food in medicine and religion, and the influence of the Europeans on our diet, the book successfully creates a trajectory of Indian food through the centuries.
It’s hard to forget the breathless feeling on finishing this masterly novel the first time around. The Booker and Booker of Bookers winning book covers a vast expanse of modern Indian history, from events leading up to the country’s independence and Partition to the Emergency. Midnight’s Children is a stark example of magic realism in contemporary literature—stretching from Kashmir and Lahore to Dhaka, it presents the story of Saleem Sinai, one with a dripping and sensitive nose, who shares telepathic powers with several other children born between 12am and 1am on 15 August 1947. Rushdie’s style is influenced by India’s varied oral traditions, and the often dark and gloomy events in the book are peppered with delightful puns and humour.
“What sounds sweetest, being called Mother or being called Father?" asks king Yuvanashva in this intriguing book. The ruler of a small kingdom, Vallabhi, located between Panchala and Hastinapuri, is a childless king who accidentally drinks a magic potion meant to make his three queens pregnant. After he gives birth to a son, Yuvanashva is wracked by a dilemma—is he a man or a woman? Pattanaik’s first work of fiction, The Pregnant King draws on an ancient tale, which he places within the Mahabharat to look at ideas of gender fluidity in the epic. Stories of the half-man, half-woman Shikhandi, Arjun, who has to masquerade as a woman during exile, and Ileshwara, a god on full-moon days and a goddess on full-moon nights, weave in and out of Yuvanashva’s tale. Pattanaik also questions the gender roles assigned to individuals by society through Shilavati, the king’s mother, who has been the regent of Vallabhi for 30 years but can never be the ruler. This is a magnificent novel of ideas we are still grappling with.
Clever, witty and satirical, The Great Indian Novel is a feat of historical transposition, nearly as ambitious as the epic Mahabharat it is inspired by. The ancient characters take on the colour and form of their modern counterparts, along with their frailties and foibles. If some of the resemblances are obvious, Tharoor is adept at leaving the reader guessing, often by using a single character as a stand-in for multiple personalities. Mohandas Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Jayaprakash Narayan—no one is spared barbs.
While historian Romila Thapar’s The Penguin History Of Early India is an acknowledged classic, the full majesty of her scholarship and the multilayered richness of South Asian history come alive in Cultural Pasts. The book is a collection of essays published across Thapar’s career, and grouped under nine themes, such as “Historiography", “Archaeology and History" and “The Present in the Past". The range of Thapar’s interests is vast, taking in Mauryan India, the Aryan Theory, the rise of Hindutva, heroic epics, the tradition of renouncing society, and much more. A must-read for all times.
Reading Pranay Lal’s fascinating study of South Asia’s natural history is akin to entering a portal into deep time. The earth we stand on is profoundly old and mysterious but it’s littered with signs that tell its story, if one has the eyes to see them. Lal does the looking and tells an entertaining tale, ranging from the beginning of the world to the creation of humans, and how the subcontinent figures in all this. Indica is simply unputdownable.
India After Gandhi, Ramachandra Guha’s doorstopper of a book, is, quite simply, the best general history of India since independence. Published on the 60th anniversary of 1947, Guha’s account begins at the moment of India’s freedom from British rule. Essentially a study of modern Indian politics, the book takes us through the main points of reference, such as Nehruvian socialism, the Emergency, the Mandir and Mandal churn. But he also looks at other, equally important developments, like environmentalism, south Indian politics, Kashmir, riots and much else in granular detail. It’s a magisterial attempt to understand India.
Manu Joseph is a literary rabble-rouser, best known for his astute, often provocative deconstruction of all things Indian that seem to provoke ideologues of all stripes. In Serious Men, he turns his satirical gaze on two protagonists: a Brahmin astronomer looking for extra-terrestrial life and his Dalit assistant, who seeks social and professional validation and spins an outrageous lie to get there. Indian writers, Joseph said once, often take an overtly compassionate view of the poor that he finds “condescending". This one is an irreverent takedown of such proprieties, and of the insidious caste system that lurks behind closed doors.
That a dreamy young Scot would hitchhike to India in 1959 and fall in love with the Himalaya and become a naturalized Indian isn’t very surprising. What’s outstanding is the heartfelt and sparkling story he tells about this love, one that resonates with everyone who loves the mountains. The Nanda Devi Affair chronicles Aitken’s intrepid journeys through the Uttarakhand Himalaya over decades, following thesiren song of Nanda Devi, a mountain that is also a goddess. Aitken collects folklore about the mountain, travels to the perilous spots of its pilgrimage and serves up a paean to the Himalaya that steers clear of any “exotic India" tropes.
BY P. SAINATH (2000)
Journalist P. Sainath’s seminal classic of reportage came as a slap in the face of “India Shining" narratives when it was published in 2000. Twenty years later, it remains a pointed rebuke to any triumphalist notions of “New India". The book tells the poignant story of the institutional exploitation of rural India, a phenomenon that changed only cosmetically once India became a free, democratic country. Through a series of case studies, Sainath looks at the lengths people in rural India go to just to make ends meet, and how a deeply unfeeling state apparatus conspires to keep generations mired in poverty and indignity.
Retellings of mythology are in vogue but Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni’s book never feels like a retelling—it is so compelling and layered that it makes the original feel like a retelling. The Palace Of Illusions is Draupadi’s version of the Mahabharat: from her birth from fire to a lonely childhood and complicated friendship with Krishna, to her marriage with five brothers and her secret attraction to her husbands’ most dangerous enemy. This is a novel about a woman in a man’s world, and her deeply sensual and philosophical journey through it.
K.G. Satyamurthy, or Satyam, and Manjula are the central characters of Sujatha Gidla’s book—her uncle and mother, respectively. Born into the Mala caste, she traces the different ways in which her family’s identity was subsumed by it—education, romantic equations, politics and employment. The book also exposes the fault lines within left politics as conflict gripped Andhra Pradesh between the 1970s-1980s. Inspired by the Naxalbari movement to join the Communist Party, Satyam eventually broke away from it, disillusioned by caste discrimination, and helped form the CPI(ML) People’s War group in the late 1960s. Narrated in Gidla’s detached yet deeply personal tone, Ants Among Elephants is an engaging and important read.
The legacy of Nagarkar, a powerhouse in Indian literature, is tainted by the sexual misconduct allegations that emerged against him during the #MeToo movement in 2018. But Ravan & Eddie, the first in a trilogy, remains one of his most memorable works. Its protagonists are neighbours in a Mumbai chawl, forever linked by a freak accident that resulted in the death of Eddie’s father. Funny and fast-paced, it shows the life and politics of the working classes, and the love and ambitions that bloom within and go beyond confined spaces.
BY B.N. GOSWAMY (2014)
The Padma Bhushan-winning art historian has authored over 20 books on Pahari and Indian miniature paintings. His book, The Spirit Of Indian Painting: Close Encounters With 101 Great Works, 1100-1900, is a lavishly illustrated treatise on artworks spanning a thousand years, ranging from Jain manuscripts and Rajasthani, Mughal, Pahari and Deccani miniatures to Company School paintings. Goswamy leavens his scholarship with storytelling to write in an accessible style that shows us how to “read" each painting. Art historians such as Naman Ahuja agree that while Goswamy’s monograph on the 18th century Indian painter Nainsukh is exemplary, this book is the best choice for this list because it covers the whole history of Indian painting.
A psychoanalyst as well as a leading figure in the fields of cultural psychology and the psychology of religion, Sudhir Kakar gives us the first full-length study of Indian sexuality in this volume, exploring India’s sexual fantasies and ideals. His sources are textual—from pulp fiction to folktales and movies and proverbs to Mohandas Gandhi’s autobiography. There are interviews with women from the slums of Delhi and case studies from his own practice, all building up to paint a vivid portrait of the many sexual desires and realities in India.
This collection of nine short stories about Indian Americans caught between tradition and the New World marked the arrival of a literary phenomenon. It won Lahiri the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and the Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award. The hard-to-please book critic Michiko Kakutani of The New York Times praised Lahiri for her writing style, citing her “uncommon elegance and poise". In 2015, Lahiri declared that she would write only in Italian, which potentially limits her English writing career to only four books, and makes her debut even more precious.
Part autobiography, part fiction, Jerry Pinto’s novel about growing up in a Goan Catholic family living in a one-bedroom Mumbai apartment while dealing with a mother’s mental illness is the untold story of many Indian families, where mental health is hushed up and never spoken about. Based on his own life, Pinto’s deft representation of his community and its members, who speak Portuguese formally but break into Konkani in moments of stress, is another high point of this novel, one of the most engaging works of Indian English fiction in recent years.
What makes a citizen vote for someone with criminal antecedents in every Indian election? To answer this question, political analyst Milan Vaishnav marries ground reportage with data journalism, crunching public disclosures of 60,000 political candidates spread across 35 state elections and two national elections (2009 and 2014). The result: a seminal work in Indian political science; an academic study that is also accessible to a lay reader. A sample: “The problem with Indian state isn’t that it is too big," he writes, “it is that it is big in all the wrong places."
If there were ever a contest to identify the definitive Partition novel, this 1956 work would be, without doubt, one of the contenders. Through the microcosmic world of one village on the border between a newly independent India and a newly created Pakistan, Singh illustrates all the tensions and conflicts of that turbulent time—the forces that made neighbours turn on each other after having lived peacefully in the same quiet village for years. Imbued with a deep humanity, this novel is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand the physical and emotional upheaval of the partition of India.
An unabashed Anglophile, Chaudhuri’s politics, especially his denial of the evils of British colonialism in India, are immensely problematic but that doesn’t make his prose any less readable. For a first book, written at the age of 51 while Chaudhuri was working as a news writer for All India Radio, Autobiography is exceedingly well-written and lucid—even poetic when the author dwells on his childhood in a village in East Bengal. But ultimately, this complex and often bitter work distils all the angst of a frustrated Bengali intellectual who feels cheated by life and nationalist politics. You can hate him or deride him, but you can’t ignore the Babu.
(via the Mint Lounge)
submitted by TejasNair to Indianbooks

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